In order to avoid the following big city disease, the development of megacities and megacities must limit the scale of single city, and can not blindly “spread the cake”. In terms of spatial structure, we must optimize the layout and develop new towns.
Recently, many mega cities and mega cities have relaxed the threshold for settlement in remote areas.
On March 2, the Shanghai Municipal People’s government issued the “opinions on the implementation of the city’s” 14th five year plan “to speed up the planning and construction of new towns” and proposed to formulate differentiated population introduction and talent introduction policies, improve the residence permit points and settlement policies, strengthen the introduction of talents in urgent need and outstanding young talents in new towns, and broaden the channels for overseas talent introduction. Explore the introduction of differentiated housing purchase and leasing policies with the central city, and study and improve the talent housing policy of combining rent and purchase and linking rent and sale. Formulate a package of public service supporting policies involving education, medical care, pension and other service talents according to local conditions.
In addition to Shanghai, Nanjing, Guangzhou and other cities have recently relaxed the threshold for settlement in remote areas. Nanjing is the only mega city in Jiangsu Province. Municipal Government Office City in February 18th, on the implementation of the general office of the Nanjing municipal government on further promoting the registration of non registered residence in cities, proposed that the settlement restrictions of towns in Pukou, Liuhe, Lishui and Gaochun should be relaxed, and those who hold the above four districts residence permits and pay social insurance for urban workers for more than 6 months can be settled.
In the mega city of Guangzhou, in December last year, Guangzhou issued the “measures for the administration of differentiated out of City immigration in Guangzhou”, which is intended to implement the differentiated household policy in seven districts, namely Baiyun District, Huangpu District, Huadu District, Panyu District, Nansha District, Conghua district and Zengcheng District. The Measures stipulate that those who are employed or started business within the scope of implementation and who meet the following requirements may move their registered residence to Guangzhou, and register in the administrative area within the scope of differentiated household entry: 1, having full time undergraduate degree or bachelor’s degree in the national universities or colleges (Dan Zheng), or having full time college degree in the local universities or full-time technician college. Graduates of technician class and Senior Engineer class; 2. They are under the age of 28; 3. They have to pay social insurance continuously for 12 months within the scope of differentiated household entry.
Niu Fengrui, a researcher at the center for urban development and environment research of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, analyzed the first finance and economics department. When the main urban area of a city is too large, if we continue to “spread the pie”, the negative effects will appear. If the main urban area of a mega city is too large, it is necessary to develop new towns.
Niu Fengrui said that in the past, urban development emphasized specialization and division of labor, which was conducive to urban life. But when the city is too large, the emphasis on specialization will bring traffic congestion. Now, the development of a new town can not simply develop into a “sleeping city”. This will bring about the problem of commuting. We must balance the work and housing.
According to Niu Fengrui’s analysis, the farther the spatial distance is, the higher the transaction cost is. Therefore, it is necessary to form industrial chain clusters within a certain range, so as to achieve scale effect and agglomeration effect, reduce the external transaction cost of enterprises, and improve the economic efficiency. The development of business, high-end service industry and production-oriented service industry in the central urban area of big cities, while the manufacturing industry covers a large area, which can be combined with the service industry in the main urban area to realize the rational allocation of resources.
Peng Peng, executive chairman of the Guangdong Provincial Research Association for system reform, told the reporter of China first finance and economics that the central city and the central urban area have strong innovation ability, and the surrounding areas have labor force and manufacturing industry. The combination of the two promotes the high-quality development of the industry. In the future, new towns should integrate industry with city, have more manufacturing and residential facilities, and also develop some producer services and life services.
Peng Peng said that many people often commute more than one hour a day in megacities, which is a waste of time and energy. Therefore, it is better to combine population and industrial policies by developing some new towns. The settlement restrictions around big cities can be further relaxed, which is conducive to guiding the population to gather around the central city. In the future, cities like Guangzhou, Shenzhen and new first tier cities are more likely to further relax. By building a new city, people can work and live in the new city, not to produce too many commuters, but to reduce the emergence of “sleeping city” and “swing city”.